BA PART I : PAPER 3.3
The occurance of SUN RISE and SUN SET are very important phenomenon in the
every day life of living being on the Planet Earth. All activity on the
mother earth commences with the break of day i.e. SUN-RISE.
All process of our life in all fields like Economic, Civil , Religious
activities are related and dependent on SUN-RISE since ancient days. If it
is so vital and important for all the living beings on this mother earth, it
is natural to ask some of the following Questions :
(1) What is SUN-RISE and SUN-SET ?
(2) How is it measured or defined ?
(3) Has it got different meaning and purpose, in the parlance of astrology?
(4) What is the significance and its role in civil and religious life of the
society as a whole ?
The time interval preceeding SUN RISE and following SUN SET during which
the sky is partially illuminated is called TWILIGHT, the illumination before
SUN RISE is called Morning Twilight(or USHA-KALA) after SUN-SET is called
Evening Twilight. The Twilight is further divided in the following parts :
ASTRONOMICAL TWILIGHT (18 deg.)
This Twilight timing relate to the instant when the centre of the SUN is 18
deg. below the horizon . This is defined as Astronomical Twilight, now a
days . Brahma Mahurta, Usha kala and Shandya kala commences after the
commencement of Astronomical Twilight depending on the sanctions of Rishis
in Dharmashastras. According to Vedic Sanction, all human beings after
attending their morning natural call, should commence worship, perform
other rituals and undertake pences during this period.
NAUTICAL TWILIGHT(12 deg.)
The timing relate to the instant when the centre of the SUN is 12 deg. below
horizon and is called Nautical Twilight. This is mainly used for
navigational purposes as the brightness in the Sky is further increased.
CIVIL TWILIGHT(6 deg.)
This Timing relate to the instant when the center of SUN is 6 de. below
horizon and is called civil Twilight. The brightness in the sky is
sufficient to commence activities without the help of any artificial light
by all living beings on the Earth.
The timing relate to the instant when the centre of SUN coincides with the
horizon is called Astronomical SUN-RISE in the morning and SUN-SET in the
It should be remembered that longitudes of SUN, MOON and other bodies are
measured from the centre of the Earth and relate to the centre of the
Planets. The Lunar phases that tithes are also relate to the centre of the
SUN and MOON. The Astronomical day and night become equal on the day of
Accurance of Equinoxes.
SUN RISE -Visibility of the upper limb.
This relates to the visibility of upper limb of sun in the horizon. This is
called the day break. The commencement of SAVAN DAYor CIVIL DAY relates to
the visibility of the upper limb of the SUN on the horizon (and not the
coincidence of the upper limb with the horizon) and as such include
refraction and limb-correction of about 3 & 1/2 min.(3 min. upto 10 deg.
Lat, 4min. For 30 deg to 35 deg. Lat).The time relating to the visibility
of upper limb in an important occurrence every day. Our Rishis in Vedas
called in commencement of SAVAN DAY(CIVIL DAY in common terminology).The
TIthis, Nakshastras and Vara relating to this timing are used to commence
different rituals and penances(like Vrat etc.).Therefore, This is used to
decide various auspious mahaurtas etc. also in some cases.
Some definitions are given below These will help to choose appropriate
timing for different Astrological/civil purposes.
Solar Day :
The duration of Solar day is 24hrs(60 Ghatis) equivalent of
the time the Earth completes a rotation of 360 deg. about its own axis. This
is standard measurement of time.
Sidereal Year :
The sidereal year is the mean period of revolution of
the earth in its orbit with respect to the back ground of starts(from a
fixed star to a fixed star ). The length of mean sidereal Solar Year is 365
days 6 hr. 9 min 96.8sec.
The Sidereal day is shorter than the solar day, because
by the time the earth completes a rotation about its axis, the SUN slips
nearly a degree to the earth and is of 23 hr. 56m 4.09053 sec. of mean
solar day .
Tropical Year :
This is also called civil year or year of seasons. This
is equivalent to the time of passage of SUN from one Vernal Equinox to the
next Vernal Equinox. This could also be defined by the time elapsed during
successive passage of SUN on entry from Southern Hemisphere to Northern
Hemisphere over the celestial Equator. Due to pression of equinoxes by a
mean value of 50''.29 during the year , length of Tropical Year is less than
Sidereal Year by about 20m 25 secs as at present. The duration of Tropical
Year is 365 d 5 h 48 m 45.2 sec.
In Vedic Era i.e. atleast upto Mahabharat Era ,Tropical Solar Year along
with lunar Months were in vouge ,so that our calender is in complete unision
and conformity with seasons(Ritus).
There are many refrences in vedas and Puranas to this effect.In Vishnu
Puranas, Sage Purana has clearly mentioned in sloka 2/10/4
At present, we are following Saka Solar Year and Vikram Samvat based on
Sidereal Solar Year.With the result ,our present calendar is not in harmony
with seasons and Ritus and is ahead by about 23days from the natural cycle
of Ritus(seasons).We should adopt our calendar as per vedic Sanction as it
has already become late.
Savan Year :
The moths of the calendar consists of 30 days each and the
year is of 360 days.This year is basically adopted for relegious rituals and
penances. This is also called the "Atma" of all calendar(s) as the counting
of days is even and uniform.For Astrological calculations , traditional
Panchang makers use kaliyuga Era and the Julian calendar (one year equal to
365.25 day) is used by Modern Astronomers.The purpose of savarn calendar is
distinctly different, and some Astrologers use Savan era for calculations of
Directional periods under some wrong motions.
Savan Day :
Every day commence on the visibility of upper limb of the
SUN on the horizon and (not with coincidence of upper limb with the
Astronomical SUN-RISE should be adopted for all asrological
calculations like calculation of ascendent , M:C,Hora Langa,Ghati
Langa,Mandi,Gulika,other upgrahas etc.
SUN-Rise related to the visibility of upper limb-commencement of
This should be a dopted for rituals, penance and other religious of civil
activities. Varsha-Miliara has referred this SUN-Rise only in this context.
This time should not be mis understood with astronomical SUN-RISE.
The approriate SUN-RISE timing as follow:
Astronomical SUN-RISE should be adopted for all asrologicalcalculations like calculation of ascendent , M:C,Hora Langa,GhatiLanga,Mandi,Gulika,other upgrahas etc. SUN-Rise related to the visibility of upper limb-commencement ofSavan/civil dayThis should be a dopted for rituals, penance and other religious of civilactivities. Varsha-Miliara has referred this SUN-Rise only in this context.This time should not be mis understood with astronomical SUN-RISE.
should be adopted with fixing up Mahastas according to the sanction and
requirement of Muhurta Shastra.
The same rules would be applicable to SUN-SET and Evening Twilight.
The Astronomical day is shorter by 7 to 9 Minute in duration depending
on lattitude and Visa-Versa in the case of duration of night.
Astronomical day and night becomes equal on the day of occurance of
Vernal and autumnal Equinoxes.
Dinman and Ratri-man are related to Astronomial SUN-RISE and SUN-SET.
They are not based on Savan-Day(Civil Day) for Astrological Calculations.
Period between two successive SUN-RISE(S) is never equal to 24 hours
(60 Ghatis), and is always less or more than this period (accept two days in
one year). Therefore Istha i.e, time of birth elapsed from SUN-RISE can be
more than 24 hours (60 Ghatis) in some cases.
According to the practice in vaidic period, Tropical Solar year should
be adopted with Lunar Months so that, the rituals and festivals should be in
unision and haromony with the seasons and Ritus. Occurance of the day of
Equinoxes and solstices are related to Tropical Signs. It is wrong to say
that SUN adopts Northern course on the day of occurance of Sidereal Makar
Sankaranti both from Astronomical and Astrological stand point the slake is
very significant in this regard which refers to dual Zodiac.The Sloka 4 of
chapter one of Birhat-Jatak is very significant in this regard which gives a
suggetion about dual Zordial.
For calendarical proposes, we should follow Tropical Zodicac
commencing from the day or point of accurance of vernal Equinox. Lunar
Months should follow Tropical solar Months as per scheme laid down in
Vishnu Purna Second Ansha, Chapter Ten. First Solar Tropical Month shall be
Madhu Masha and corresponding Lunar Month should be called chaitra followed
by Scheme suggested in this chapter. In nutt-sell, we should adopt Tropical
Rashis and Nakshatras for calendarical purposes and weather forecast. Ardra
Pravesh Kundli should be made for Tropical Ardra which is Astronomically
For Astrological predictions, we have to adopt Sidereal Zodiac which
is dependant on Transit of Moon. Our vedas and puranas are full of
predictions based on the transit of planet in the fixed (Sidereal)
Nakshastras and Stars, as per sanction of saga-prasar. We should follow
Sidereal Rasis and Nabshtras for prediction purposes. Parasar, as well
Varsha-Mihri themselves has taken star chitra as a reference point.
It may be mentioned that when both zodiac coindided on 285 AD, the star
spica (Chitra & Virgins) was at 180 degree Opposite to the V.E.Point. This
day was defined for commencement of New Era or Calendar. As star chitra has
annual proper motion of (-) 0.028 seconds . This Star has already shifted
by about 57 sec. since 285 A.D in reverse direction. As such, all longitudes
of the planets given in Lahiri Ephemises should be increased by 57 Sec. for
the year 1999. Only then, we are following true-Chitra-Pakshya-Anamsa. This
anyamsa has the sanction of both sage parsar and varaha-Mihir.
Western Astrologers are using Tropical Zodiac and Indian Astrologers
are using sidereal Zodia both for Calender and Astrological purposes.
Tropical Zodiac should be used for calendarical purposes and sidereal
zodiac for Astrological purposes.