BA PART I : PAPER 2.1
BRIHAT PARASHARA HORA SHASTRA
Ch. 1. The Creation
I prostrate before the lotus-feet of Lord Vighneswara, offspring of Uma, the
cause of destruction of sorrow, who is served by MahÄbhutas (the five great
elements of the universe) etc., who has the face of a tusker and who consumes
the essence of Kapittha and Jambu fruits.
1-4. Offering his obeisance to all-knowing MahÄrishi ParÄÅ›ar and with folded
hands, Maitreya said: â€œO venerable MahÄrishi, Jyotish, the supreme limb of the
Vedas, has three divisions, viz. HorÄ, Ganita and Samhita. Among the said three
divisions HorÄ, or the general part of Jyotish is still more excellent. I desire
to know of its glorious aspects from you. Be pleased to tell me, how this
Universe is created? How does it end? What is the relationship of the animals,
born on this earth, with the heavenly bodies? Please speak elaboratelyâ€
5-8. MahÄrishi ParÄÅ›ar answered. O Brahmin, your query has an auspicious purpose
in it for the welfare of the Universe. Praying Lord Brahma and ÅšrÄ« SarasvatÄ«,
his power (and consort) and SÅ«rya, the leader of the Grahas and the cause of
Creation, I shall proceed to narrate to you the science of Jyotish, as heard
through Lord Brahma. Only good will follow the teaching of this Vedic Science to
the students, who are peacefully disposed, who honour the preceptors (and
elders), who speak only truth and are godfearing. Woeful forever, doubtlessly,
will it be to impart knowledge of this science to an unwilling student, to a
heterodox and to a crafty person.
9-12. ÅšrÄ« Vishnu, who is the Lord (of all matters), who has undefiled spirit,
who is endowed with the three Gunas, although he transcends the grip of Gunas
(Gunatita), who is the Author of this Universe, who is glorious, who is the
Cause and who is endowed with valour, has no beginning. He authored the Universe
and administers it with a quarter of his power. The other three quarters of Him,
filled with nectar, are knowable only to the philosophers (of maturity). The
Principal Evolver, who is both perceptible and imperceptible in Vasudeva. The
Imperceptible part of the Lord is endowed with dual powers, while the
Perceptible with triple powers.
13-15. The three powers are ÅšrÄ« Shakti (Mother Lakshmi) with Sattva-Gun, BhÅ«
Shakti (Mother-Earth) with Rajo-Gun and NÄ«l Shakti with Tamo-Gun. Apart from the
three, the fourth kind of Vishnu, influenced by ÅšrÄ« Shakti and Bhoo Shakti,
assumes the form of Shankarshan with Tamo-Gun, of Pradyumna with Rajo-Gun and of
Anirudh with Sattva-Gun.
16-17. Mahatatwa, Ahamkar and Ahamkar Murti and Brahma, are born from
Shankarshan, Pradyumna and Anirudh, respectively. All these three forms are
endowed with all the three Gunas, with predominance of the Gun due to their
18-19. Ahamkar is of three classes, i.e. with Sattvic, Rajasic and Tamasic
dispositions. Divine class, sensory organs and the five primordial compounds
(space, air, fire, water and earth) are, respectively, from the said three
20. Lord Vishnu, coupled with ÅšrÄ« Shakti, rules over the three worlds. Coupled
with Bhoo Shakti, He is Brahma causing the Universe. Coupled with Neel Shakti,
He is Shiva, destroying the Universe.
21-24. The Lord is in all beings and the entire Universe is in Him. All beings
contain both Jivatma and ParamatmÄÅ„Å›as. Some have predominance of the former,
while yet some have the latter in predominance. ParamatmÄÅ„Å› is predominant in
the Grahas, viz. SÅ«rya etc. and Brahma, Shiva and others. Their powers, or
consorts too have predominance of ParamatmÄÅ„Å›. Others have more of JivatmÄÅ„Å›.
Ch. 2. Great Incarnations
1. Maitreya: â€œO MahÄrishi ParÄÅ›ar, are the incarnations of Vishnu, viz. ÅšrÄ« Ram,
ÅšrÄ« Krishn etc., endowed with JivÄÅ„Å›?
2. Maharishi Parashar: â€œO Brahmin, the four incarnations, viz. Ram, Krishn,
Narasimh and Varah are wholly with ParamatmÄÅ„Å›. The other incarnations (than
these, out of the ten) have in them JivÄÅ„Å› too.
3-4. The unborn Lord has many incarnations. He has incarnated, as the 9 (Nava)
Grahas to bestow on the living beings the results due to their Karmas. He is
Janardan. He assumed the auspicious form of Grahas to destroy the demons (evil
forces) and sustain the divine beings.
5-7. From SÅ«rya the incarnation of Ram, from Candr that of Krishn, from Mangal
that of Narasimh, from Budh that of Buddha, from Guru that of Vaman, from Åšukr
that of Parashuram, from Åšani that of Kurma (Tortoise), from Rahu that of Varah
(Pig) and from Ketu that of Meen (Fish) occurred. All other incarnations than
these also are through the Grahas. The beings with more ParamatmÄÅ„Å› are called
8-13. The beings with more JivatmÄÅ„Å› are (mortal) beings. The high degree of
ParamatmÄÅ„Å› from the Grahas, viz. SÅ«rya etc. did incarnate, as Ram, Krishn etc.
After completing the mission, the ParamatmÄÅ„Å›as (of the respective) Grahas again
merge (in the respective) Grahas. The Jivatma portions from the Grahas take
births, as human beings and live their lives according to their Karmas and again
merge in the Grahas. And at the time of Great Destruction the Grahas as well
merge in Lord Vishnu. The one, who knows of all these, will become versed in the
knowledge of the past, present and future. Without a knowledge of Jyotish these
cannot be known. Hence, everyone should have a knowledge of Jyotish,
particularly the Brahmin. The one, who, devoid of knowledge of Jyotish, blames
this Vedic Science will go to the hell called â€˜Rauravaâ€™ and will be reborn
Ch. 3. Grah Characters and Description
1. Maitreya: â€œO MahÄrishi, you have affectionately explained about the
incarnations of Grahas. Now kindly detail their characters and dispositions.
2-3. ParaÅ›ar: â€œO Brahmin, listen to the account of placement of the heavenly
bodies. Out of the many luminous bodies sighted in the skies some are stars, yet
some are Grahas. Those, that have no movements, are the Nakshatras (asterisms).
4-6. Those are called â€˜Grahasâ€™, that move through the Nakshatras (or stellar
mansions) in the zodiac. The said zodiac comprises of 27 Nakshatras commencing
from Ashvini. The same area is divided in 12 parts equal to 12 â€˜Rashisâ€™
commencing from Mesh. The names of the Grahas commence from SÅ«rya. The Rashi
rising is known, as â€˜Lagnâ€™. Based on Lagn and the Grahas, joining and departing
from each other, the nativeâ€™s good and bad effects are deducted.
Addition from Santhanam till Sloka 7. The names of the 27 Nakshatras are
Ashvini, Bharani, Krittika, Rohini, Mrigasira, Ardra, Punarvasu, Pushya,
Aslesha, Magha, Purvaphalguni, Uttaraphalguni, Hasta, Chitra, Swati, Vishaka,
Anuradha, Jyeshtha, Mula, Purvashadh, Uttarashadh, Shravana, Dhanishtha,
Satabhisha, Purvabhadra, Uttarabhadra, Revati.
Lagn is a very important point in the horoscope. It is the Rashi, that rises in
the East, on the latitude of birth. The apparent rising of a Rashi is due to the
rotation of the earth on its own axis at a rate of motion, causing every degree
of the zodiac seemingly ascend on the eastern horizon.
Approximately, two hours are required for a Rashi to pass via the horizon,
thereby every degree taking four minutes to ascend. This duration, however, is
actually dependent on the concerned latitude.
Actually SÅ«rya has no motion. His motion is an apparent one, as viewed from the
rotating earth. Other Grahas, including the nodes, have varied rates of motion.
The average daily motions of the Grahas, which are not, however standard, are,
as follows: SÅ«rya 1, Candr 13-15, Mangal 30-45â€™, Budh 65-100â€™, Åšukr 62-82â€™, Guru
5-15â€™, Åšani 2â€™, Rahu/Ketu 3â€™.
With such different motions, a Grah forms various Drishtis with others. These
Drishtis through longitudinal distances have a great deal of utility in Jyotish.
This is what Maharishi Parashar suggests to be considered.
7. Details (of astronomical nature) of stars have to be understood by general
rules, while I narrate to you about the effects of Grahas and Rashis.
8-9. The positions of the Grahas for a given time be taken, as per Drikganit.
And with the help of Rashi durations, applicable to the respective places, Lagn
at birth should be known. Now, I tell you about the castes, descriptions and
dispositions of the Grahas.
10. Names of Grahas. The names of the nine Grahas, respectively, are SÅ«rya,
Candr, Mangal, Budh, Guru, Åšukr, Åšani, Rahu and Ketu.
11. Benefics and Malefics. Among these, SÅ«rya, Åšani, Mangal, decreasing Candr,
Rahu and Ketu (the ascending and the descending nodes of Candr) are malefics,
while the rest are benefics. Budh, however, is a malefic, if he joins a malefic.
Addition from Santhanam till Sloka 12-13. When Candr is ahead of SÅ«rya, but
within 120, she has medium strength. Between 120 to 240 she is very auspicious,(
see â€˜Atishubhapredâ€™). From 240 to 0 she is bereft of strength. This is Yavanasâ€™
view, vide P. 70 of my English Translation of Saravali. This view is, however,
related to Candrâ€™s strength, or otherwise, while waning Candr (Krishna Paksh,
dark half) is a malefic and waxing Candr (Shukla Paksh, bright half) is a
benefic. Should Candr be Yuti with a benefic, or receiving a Drishti from a
benefic, she turns a benefic, even if in a waning state. As regards Budh, we
have clear instructions from Maharishi Parashar, that he becomes a malefic, if
he joins a malefic. If waning Candr and Budh are together, both are benefics.
12-13. Grah governances. SÅ«rya is the soul of all. Candr is the mind. Mangal is
oneâ€™s strength. Budh is speech-giver, while Guru confers Knowledge and
happiness. Åšukr governs semen (potency), while Åšani denotes grief.
14-15. Grah cabinet. Of royal status are SÅ«rya and Candr, while Mangal is the
Army chief. Prince-apparent is Budh. The ministerial Grahas are Guru and Åšukr.
Åšani is a servant. Rahu and Ketu form the Grah Army.
16-17. Complexions of Grahas. SÅ«rya is blood-red. Candr is tawny. Mangal, who is
not very tall is blood-red, while Budhâ€™s hue is akin to that of green grass.
Tawny, variegated and dark are Guru, Åšukr and Åšani in their order.
18. Deities of Grahas. Fire (Agni) (?), Water (Varuna), Subrahmanya (Lord
Shivaâ€™s son, following Ganesh), Maha Vishnu, Indra, Shachi Devi (the consort of
Lord Indra) and Brahma (?) are the presiding deities of the 7 Grahas in their
19. Gender of the Grahas. Budh and Åšani are neuters. Candr and Åšukr are females,
while SÅ«rya, Mangal and Guru are males.
20. Primordial compounds. The Panchabhutas, space, air, fire, water and earth,
are, respectively, governed by Guru, Åšani, Mangal, Åšukr and Budh.
21. Castes of Grahas. Guru and Åšukr are Brahmins. SÅ«rya is a royal Grah, while
Candr and Budh belong to commercial community. Åšani rules the Sudras (4th
22. Sattvic Grahas are the luminaries and Guru, Åšukr and Budh are Rajasik, while
Mangal and Åšani are Tamasic.
23. Description of SÅ«rya. SÅ«ryaâ€™s eyes are honey-coloured. He has a square body.
He is of clean habits, bilious, intelligent and has limited hair (on his head).
24. Description of Candr. Candr is very windy and phlegmatic. She is learned and
has a round body. She has auspicious looks and sweet speech, is fickle-minded
and very lustful.
25. Description of Mangal. Mangal has blood-red eyes, is fickle-minded, liberal,
bilious, given to anger and has thin waist and thin physique.
26. Description of Budh. Budh is endowed with an attractive physique and the
capacity to use words with many meanings. He is fond of jokes. He has a mix of
all the three humours.
27. Description of Guru. Guru has a big body, tawny hair and tawny eyes, is
phlegmatic, intelligent and learned in Shastras.
28. Description of Åšukr. Åšukr is charming, has a splendourous physique, is
excellent, or great in disposition, has charming eyes, is a poet, is phlegmatic
and windy and has curly hair.
29. Description of Åšani. Åšani has an emaciated and long physique, has tawny
eyes, is windy in temperament, has big teeth, is indolent and lame and has
30. Description of Rahu and Ketu. Rahu has smoky appearance with a blue mix
physique. He resides in forests and is horrible. He is windy in temperament and
is intelligent. Ketu is akin to Rahu.
31. Primary ingredients (or Sapth Dhatus). Bones, blood, marrow, skin, fat,
semen and muscles are, respectively, denoted by the Grahas: SÅ«rya, Candr,
Mangal, Budh, Guru, Åšukr and Åšani.
32. Abodes of the Grahas. Temple, watery place, place of fire, sport-ground,
treasure-house, bed-room and filthy ground: these are, respectively, the abodes
for the seven Grahas from SÅ«rya onward.
33. Grah periods. Ayan, Muhurta, a day (consisting day and night), Ritu, month,
fortnight and year: these are the periods allotted to the Grahas from SÅ«rya to
34. Tastes of the Grahas. Pungent, saline, bitter, mixed, sweet, acidulous and
astringent are, respectively, tastes lorded by SÅ«rya, Candr, Mangal, Budh, Guru,
Åšukr and Åšani.
35-38. Strengths of Grahas. Strong in the East are Budh and Guru. SÅ«rya and
Mangal are so in the South, while Åšani is the only Grah, that derives strength
in the West. Candr and Åšukr are endowed with vigour, when in the North. Again,
strong during night are Candr, Mangal and Åšani, while Budh is strong during day
and night. The rest (i.e. Guru, SÅ«rya and Åšukr) are strong only in daytime.
During the dark half malefics are strong. Benefics acquire strength in the
bright half of the month. Malefics and benefics are, respectively, strong in
Dakshinayan and Uttarayan. The Lords of the year, month, day and Hora (hour of
Grah) are stronger than the other in ascending order. Again, stronger than the
other in the ascending are Åšani, Mangal, Budh, Guru, Åšukr, Candr and SÅ«rya.
39-40. Related to trees. SÅ«rya rules strong trees (i.e. trees with stout
trunks), Åšani useless trees, Candr milky trees (and rubber yielding plants),
Mangal bitter ones (like lemon plants), Åšukr floral plants, Guru fruitful ones
and Budh fruitless ones.
41-44. Other matters. Rahu rules the outcaste, while Ketu governs mixed caste.
Åšani and the nodes indicate ant-hills. Rahu denotes multi-coloured clothes and
Ketu rags. Lead and blue gem belong to Rahu and Ketu. SÅ«rya, Candr, Mangal,
Budh, Guru, Åšukr and Åšani in their order govern red silken, white silken, red,
black silken, saffron, silken and multi-coloured robes.
45-46. Seasons of Grahas. Vasanta, Greeshma, Varsh, Sarad, Hemanta and Sisir are
the six Ritus (or seasons), respectively, governed by Åšukr, Mangal, Candr, Budh,
Guru and Åšani. Rahu and Ketu denote 8 months and 3 months, respectively.
47. Dhatu, Mool and Jiva Divisions. Dhatu Grahas are Rahu, Mangal, Åšani and
Candr, while SÅ«rya and Åšukr are Mula Grahas. Budh, Guru and Ketu rule Jivas.
48. Age. Out of all the Grahas Åšani is the eldest. He bestows maximum number of
years in Naisargik Dasha.
49-50. Exaltation and Debilitation. For the seven Grahas, from SÅ«rya on, the
exaltation Rashis are, respectively, Mesh, Vrishabh, Makar, Kanya, Kark, Meen
and Tula. The deepest exaltation degrees are, respectively, 10, 3, 28, 15, 5, 27
and 20 in those Rashis. And in the seventh Rashi from the said exaltation Rashi
each Grah has its own debilitation. The same degrees of deep exaltation apply to
51-54. Additional Dignities. In Simh the first 20 degrees are SÅ«ryaâ€™s
Mooltrikon, while the rest is his own Bhava. After the first 3 degrees of
exaltation portion in Vrishabh, for Candr, the rest is her Mooltrikon. Mangal
has the first 12 degrees in Mesh, as Mooltrikon with the rest therein becoming
simply his own Bhava. For Budh, in Kanya the first 15 degrees are exaltation
zone, the next 5 degrees Mooltrikon and the last 10 degrees are own Bhava. The
first one third of Dhanu is the Mooltrikon of Guru, while the remaining part
thereof is his own Bhava. Åšukr divides Tula into two halves keeping the first,
as Mooltrikon and the second, as own Bhava. Åšaniâ€™s arrangements are same in
Kumbh, as SÅ«rya has in Simh.
55. Natural Relationships. Note the Rashis, which are the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 8th,
9th and 12th from the Mooltrikon of a Grah. The Grahas ruling such Rashis are
its friends, apart from the Lord of its exaltation Rashi. Lords other than these
are its enemies. If a Grah becomes its friend as well, as its enemy (on account
of the said two computations), then it is neutral, or equal.
56. Temporary Relationships. The Grah, posited in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 10th, 11th,
or the 12th from another, becomes a mutual friend. There is enmity otherwise.
(This applies to a given Janm Kundali)
57-58. Compound Relationship. Should two Grahas be naturally and temporarily
friendly, they become extremely friendly. Friendship on one count and neutrality
on another count make them friendly. Enmity on one count combined with affinity
on the other turns into equality. Enmity and neutralship cause only enmity.
Should there be enmity in both manners, extreme enmity is obtained. The Jyotishi
should consider these and declare horoscopic effects accordingly.
59-60. Ratio of Effects. A Grah in exaltation gives fully good effects, while in
Mooltrikon it is bereft of its auspicious effects by one fourth. It is half
beneficial in its own Bhava. Its beneficence is one fourth in a friendly Rashi.
In an equalâ€™s Rashi one eighth of auspicious disposition is useful. The good
effects are nil in debilitation, or enemyâ€™s camp. Inauspicious effects are quite
reverse with reference to what is stated.
61-64. Non-luminous UpaGrahas (Sub-Grahas). Add 4 Rashis 13 degrees and 20
minutes of arc to SÅ«ryaâ€™s longitude at a given moment to get the exact position
of the all inauspicious Dhoom. Reduce Dhoom from 12 Rashis to arrive at
Vyatipat. Vyatipat is also inauspicious. Add six Rashis to Vyatipat to know the
position of Parivesh. He is extremely inauspicious. Deduct Parivesh from 12
Rashis to arrive at the position of Chap (Indra Dhanus), who is also
inauspicious. Add 16 degrees 40 minutes to Chap, which will give Ketu (UpaKetu),
who is a malefic. By adding a Rashi to UpaKetu, you get the original longitude
of SÅ«rya. These are the Grahas, devoid of splendour, which are malefics by
nature and cause affliction.
65. Effects of Sub-Grahas. If one of these afflicts SÅ«rya, the nativeâ€™s dynasty
will decline, while Candr and Lagn, respectively, associated with one of these,
will destroy the longevity and wisdom. So declared Lord Brahma, the Lotus-Born.
66-69. Calculations of Gulik etc. The portions of SÅ«rya etc. up to Åšani denote
the periods of Gulik and others. Divide the day duration (of any week day) into
eight equal parts. The eighth portion is Lord-less. The seven portions are
distributed to the seven Grahas commencing from the Lord of the week day.
Whichever portion is ruled by Åšani, will be the portion of Gulik. Similarly make
the night duration into eight equal parts and distribute these, commencing from
the Lord of the 5th (by) week. Here again, the eighth portion is Lord-less,
while Åšaniâ€™s portion is Gulik. SÅ«ryaâ€™s portion is Kaal, Mangalâ€™s portion is
Mrityu, Guruâ€™s portion is Yamaghantak and Budhâ€™s portion is Ardhaprahar. These
durations differently apply to different places (commensurate with variable day
and night durations).
70. Gulikâ€™s Position. The degree, ascending at the time of start of Gulikâ€™s
portion (as above), will be the longitude of Gulik at a given place. Based on
this longitude only, Gulikâ€™s effects for a particular nativity be estimated.
71-74. Calculation of Pranapad. Convert the given time into Vighatis and divide
the same by 15. The resultant Rashi, degrees etc. be added to SÅ«rya, if he is in
a Movable Rashi, which will yield Pranapad. If SÅ«rya is in a Fixed Rashi, add
240 degrees additionally and, if in a Dual Rashi, add 120 degrees in furtherance
to get Pranapad. The birth will be auspicious, if Pranapad falls in the 2nd,
5th, 9th, 4th, 10th, or 11th from the natal Lagn. In other Bhavas Pranapad
indicates an inauspicious birth.
Notes. Ardhaprahar, Yamaghantak, Mrityu, Kaal and Gulik are the 5 Kaal Velas,
suggested by Maharishi Parashar. The day duration, according to altitude, is
divided into eight equal parts. The eighth portion is unlorded. The first
portion is allotted to the weekday Lord. Other portions follow in the order of
weekday Lords. We consider 5 portions of Grahas, ignoring that of Candr and
Åšukr. The portions of SÅ«rya, Mangal, Budh, Guru and Åšani are, respectively,
called Kaal, Mrityu, Ardhaprahar, Yamaghantak and Gulik.
In the case of night the durations, or 1/8th parts are allotted in a different
order. The first portion goes to the Grah, ruling the 5th weekday Lord, counted
from the day in question. The others follow in the usual order. Here again, the
8th part is Lord-less. The portions of Grahas from Kaal to Gulik are the same in
nomenclature in the night also.
Keeranuru NataRaja of Jatakalankaram (Tamil version) gives Rashis of dignities
for these UpaGrahas and Gulik etc. (UpaGrah & Gulik etc.: Exaltation,
Debilitation, Swakshetra (own Rashi)) Dhoom: Simh, Kumbh, Makar; Vyatipat:
Vrischik, Vrishabh, Mithun; Parivesh: Mithun, Dhanu, Dhanu; Indrachap: Dhanu,
Mithun, Kark; UpaKetu: Kumbh, Simh, Kark; Gulik: -, -, Kumbh; Yamaghantak: -, -,
Dhanu; Ardhaprahar: -, -, Mithun; Kaal: -, -, Makar; Mritttyu: -, -, Vrischik.
From SÅ«rya to Åšani no one is exalted in the above-mentioned exaltation Rashis,
nor debilitated in the above-mentioned debilitation Rashis.
Out of the 5 Kaal Velas, viz. Gulik etc., four except Kaal (related to SÅ«rya)
have their own Rashi system in the respective Rashis, ruled by their fathers.
Gulik, son of Åšani, has Kumbh, as his own Bhava. Guruâ€™s son, Yamaghantak, has it
in Dhanu. Ardhaprahar, Budhâ€™s son, is in own Rashi, if in Mithun. Mrityu, son of
Mangal, has Vrischik, as own Bhava. It is not known, why Kaal, a son of SÅ«rya
shifted to Makar, a Rashi of his brother (Åšani), leaving his fatherâ€™s Simh.
Obviously, Åšani has given his Mooltrikon to his son Gulik, while he gave Makar
(a secondary Rashi) to his â€˜brotherâ€™ Kaal.