The main purpose of creating this blog is to provide material and guidance to the students of Vedanga Jyotisha who are appearing for BA as well as MA level examinations of Kavi Kulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit University. I hope this effort will be welcomed by all the students of the Vedanga Jyotish and this effort will be useful to them. Dewavrat Buit dewavrat2000@yahoo.com

Sunday, July 09, 2006



'Pa is the acoustic root of ghrn'a' vrtti [the propensity of
hatred or revulsion].

The underlying weaknesses which cause immense harm to
human beings are called ripus [enemies]. They are six in
number: ka'ma [longing for physicality], krodha [anger],
lobha [avarice], mada [vanity], moha [blind attachment], and
ma 'tsarya [jealousy]. And when ourvarious mental bondages
exploit these ripus in order to tighten their grip on the mind,
they become known aspa'shas [fetters]. These pa'shas are
eight in number:
Ghrn 'a ' shaunka ' bhayam ' lajja '
Jugupsa' cetipaincamU;
Kulam' shUlainca ma'nainca
As't'aopa 'sha 'h prakiirttita 'h.
[Hatred, doubt, fear, shyness, dissemblance, vanity of line-
age, cultural superiority complex and egotism — these are the
eight fetters.]
Pa is the acoustic root of the fetter of hatred. It is a defect
not directly traceable to any one ripu, but stemming from
more than one ripu. Although hatred and fear are related to
other ripus, they are mainly related to the moha ripu, or
propensity of blind attachment. [E.g., when one's desire for
something becomes frustrated, one may develop hatred for
what was the object of desire.]
When one's psychic attraction is toward the crude, the mind
has a downward tendency (in Sanskrit the root-verb/wf or
patati carries this sense), which leads to one's eventual down-
fall. But when the mind moves upward it is called anurakti
[attraction for the Great]. The consummation of this attraction
is devotion. For this the Sanskrit verb is u'rdhva gam or
u'rdhva gacchatL
One who is weakened by excessive attachment to alcohol
falls an easy prey to the fetters of hatred and fear. Moha ripu
makes people the objects of hatred to others, and makes others
the objects of fear to them. Such is the deceptive allurement

ofmoha vrtti that people rush toward their objects of desire
without any discrimination. I already explained the different
types of moha while discussing the consonant na.
Pha is the acoustic root of bhaya vrtti [the propensity of
fear]. Though fear is generally caused by more than one
factor, it is mainly born otmoha ripu.
Ba is the acoustic root of. avajina' vrtti [indifference].
When one ignores something which is actually unacceptable,
that is called upeks'a', but when one neglects something
which may actually have some value, that is called avajina'.
Avajina' is somewhat similar in meaning to avahela'.
Upeks'a' is not always used in a bad way, but avahela'
certainly has a negative connotation. It is said,
MaetriU-karun 'a '-muditopeks 'a 'n 'a 'm '-sukha-duhkha-
pun'ya' - Pun'yavis'aya'na'm' bha'vana'tashcittapra-
Often when someone sees another person who is happy in
life he or she feels pangs of jealousy; but thJs is not an ideal
attitude. An ideal person will develop a benign attitude toward
the happy person, saying, "That person is in such a happy
frame of mind - may he stay that way forever." And for those
people who live in misery one should develop an attitude of
compassion. One should never feel happy upon seeing the
sorrows of others, but should think, "What a miserable life
that person is leading. I hope things get better for him soon."
Neither should one be jealous of a person who performs
many virtuous deeds and charitable actions. Rather one

should think well of the person since he or she is doing good
work. "Let his intellect continue to inspire him to perform
such virtuous actions. I fully support him." And if someone
is engaged in unrighteous deeds, his neighbours should ig-
nore his dark side, and should not repeatedly condemn him.
One should say, "Well, I'm not bothered by what he says or
does - that's his own business." But this attitude of tolerance
can only be accepted to a certain extent. If the person's sinful
orwicked actions harm society and disrupt social life, one can
no longer afford to be indifferent.
Bha is the acoustic root of the mu'rccha' vrtti. Here
mu'rccha' does not mean senselessness; it means to lose
one's common sense under the hypnotic spell of a particular
ripu. To avoid the unsalutary effects oimurccha' vrtti, one
should direct one's mind along the path of righteousness
through the practice ofpratya'ha'ra yoga.
Those who have not learned the technique ofpratya 'ha 'ra
yoga* should do kiirtana aloud or sing devotional songs to
escape the clutches of mu'rccha' vrttL
Ma is the acoustic root ofpran'a'sha [the propensity of
annihilation]. It is also the acoustic root ofprashraya vrtti -
giving latitude [or treating with indulgence] - in Hindi
bar'hva' dena'.

* Editors' note: In A'nanda Ma'rg? sa'dhana', shuddhis (visualizations
for withdrawing the mind) and Gwru Pu 'ja '.

Ya is the acoustic root of avishva'sa vrtti [lack of confi-
dence], and is also the acoustic root of constant movement
(like the movement of air). You may have met people who
have no confidence in themselves at all, even if they are told
to be self-confident. Such people say right up to the end of
their lives, "Shall I be able to do it?" They can never accom-
plish anything great in this world. As they also lack confi-
dence in others, others have no confidence in them.
Ra is the acoustic root of agnitattva or pra'n'ashakti —
vitality. (Ram' biijam' shikhinam' dhya'yet, trikon'am-
arun'aprabham.) It is also the acoustic root ofsarvaiw'sha
[the thought of annihilation]. Sarvana'sha causes people to
think, "I have nothing of my own. Everything is gone. I am
undone." Such a negative outlook can only be cured with the
constant auto-suggestion, "Parana Purus'a is mine," which
in the language ofTantra is called gum mantra. The feeling
that one is defeated in life is ra-biija'tmak [symbolized by
ra], and its cure is the auto-suggestion that "I have come to
win. I am destined to win." People of developed mentality try
to keep the minds of people of such negative outlook free
from the unhealthy effect of that mentality by outer-sugges-
tion. To do this is the duty of each and every good person.
We should see that our fellow human beings are never al-
lowed to throw themselves into the abyss of frustration and
disappointment; they should be rescued before they jump.
Ra is also the acoustic root of fire. So the monosyllabic
word ra means "fire".

La is the acoustic root of krurata' vrtti [cruelty]. When
human beings encounter this propensity in other human be-
ings, they should counteract it with the propensity of compas-
sion. When one sees someone in the throes of misery one
should think, "Oh, what great misery the man is suffering
from! Is there anything I can do to reduce his misery? Al-
though the person is a human in all other respects, how crude
he is in thought and behaviour. Can't I help him to arouse his
latent intellect?" This attitude of compassion is the effective
counter-measure for krurata' vrtti.
La is also the acoustic root ofks'ititattva, the solid factor.
Lam' biijam' dharan'iim' dhya'yet
Catura 'sra 'm ' supUta 'bha 'm.
Va is the acoustic root ofdharma. Dharma means enscon-
cement in one's original stance. The innate propensity of
human beings is to move along the path towards subtlety in
the psychic and spiritual spheres, and finally to merge into
Parama Purus'a. The unbroken movement of the human
mind towards Parama Purus'a is called ma'nava dharma. It
moves one from a state of ordinary happiness ever forward
and eventually establishes one in the realm of Supreme Be-
Sukham' va'inchati sarwo hi
Tacca dharma samudbhu'tah;
Tasma 'ddharmah soda 'ka 'ryah
Sarvavarn 'aer prayatna 'tah.

[All living beings long for happiness. Dharma originates
from that innate propensity. Hence dharma should always be
observed meticulously by all people.]
* * *
Dhriyate dharma itya'huh sa evapararnam' prabhu.
[Dharma is that which sustains.]
The seed of humanity cannot sprout and flourish unless it
is planted in the soil of dharma. To diverge from the path of
dharma means to rush headlong towards total annihilation. In
all one's actions one should keepParama Purus 'a as the goal,
and be well-established in dharma.
Va is also the acoustic root otjalatattva [the liquid factor],
and the acoustic root of the mythological rain-god Varun'a
Deva. Jalatattva means not only water, but any liquid.
Sha is the acoustic root otrajogun'a [the mutative princi-
ple]. It is also the acoustic root oiartha [psychic longing].
Of the four vargas [basic goals of life], one, already men-
tioned, is dharma, whose acoustic root is va; the second varga
is artha, which brings about the temporary cessation of
worldly wants. (That which brings about the permanent ces-
sation of worldly wants is Parama'rtha.)
Sha is the acoustic root of both artha and the mutative
principle. Ra is the acoustic root of energy. So shra is indica-
tive of the mutative principle supplemented by vitality. Shra
+ uniis' (feminine suffix) = shriL
The expression of vital energy arising due to the influence
of the mutative principle on one's existence is natural for
human beings in the mundane sphere. Hence the practice of
using shrii before someone's name [as a blessing on one's
dynamism] has been the custom since ancient times.

S'a is the acoustic root of tamogwt'a [the static principle],
and is also the acoustic root of all kinds ofworldly desires -
desires for things such as wealth, opulence, name, fame and
social position. The word ka'ma is used in Sanskrit as the
collective term for these desires and longings.
Dharma [psycho-spiritual longing], artha [psychic \ong-
ing], ka'ma [physical longing], andmoks'a [spiritual longing,
the longing for unqualified liberation] are the four recognized
longings or goals of human life.
To avoid any confusion, I say once again in unambiguous
terms that ka'ma means all types of physical longings.
Sa is the acoustic root of moks'a [salvation, unqualified
liberation]. (As mentioned, va is the acoustic root ofdharma,
ensconcement in one's original stance; sha is the acoustic root
ofartha, the removal ofworldly wants; and s'a is the acoustic
root offal 'ma, worldly [and especially physical] wants.) Each
of the letters is the acoustic root of one of the four vargas. Va
is additionally the acoustic root of the liquid factor; sha is the
acoustic root of rajogun'a; s'a is the acoustic root of ta-
mogun'a; and sa is the acoustic root of sattvagun'a [the
sentient principle].
Ha is the acoustic root of the ethereal factor, ofdaytime, of
the sun, ofsvarloka, andofpara'vidya' [intuitional sci-
ence]. Opposite to ha is fha, which is the acoustic root of

nighttime, of the moon, of bhu'varloka,* and of the
ka 'mamaya kos 'a. *
Ha + ao = hao, which is the acoustic root of Shiva in His
posture of dancing ta'n'd'ava. But the acoustic root of Shiva
in His role of spiritual preceptor is aem'. (It has already been
noted that aem' is also the acoustic root of one's preceptor
and of the goddess of learning -Aem' gurave namah; Aem'
Sarasvatyae namah).
Ks'a is the acoustic root of mundane knowledge, and is also
the acoustic root of material science.

* note: The lokas of the Macrocosmic Mind are Its differen
"levels", or "layers", or "spheres". They represent different stagps on i
continuum from subtle to crude. And the ka'momaya hos'a represents such i
stage in both the Macrocosmic Mind and the microcosmic mind. Tlx
ka'mamaya kos'a of the microcosm is its "crude mind", as it is the layer o
mind closest to the physical t»dy. It is concerned with physical sensation
and physical desires.


Blogger dharma cuantos said...

This is great information, thanks for sharing. Maybe you should credit the original work where you took this from: Ánanda Ma'rga Philosophy in a Nutshell Part 8 by Shrii Shrii Anandamurtijii.

12:10 PM  

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