The main purpose of creating this blog is to provide material and guidance to the students of Vedanga Jyotisha who are appearing for BA as well as MA level examinations of Kavi Kulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit University. I hope this effort will be welcomed by all the students of the Vedanga Jyotish and this effort will be useful to them. Dewavrat Buit dewavrat2000@yahoo.com

Saturday, July 08, 2006


Näma Tatva

Sarbani Sarkar
Sri Jagannath Center, Asia
15B Gangaram Hospital Road
New Delhi – 110060, INDIA
E-Mail: sarbani@srijagannath.org

jaya niräkära jaya çunya çabdahéna
jaya niräkära jaya jagata paräëa
Acyuta Däs, Chayäliç Patala
Näma Brahma Tatva of Acyuta
Once, while immersed in deep samädhi, Acyuta Däs1 was blessed with the divine
vision of the Supreme Absolute, the Niraìkara Näräyaëa and seizing this
opportunity he wished to be graced with the precious knowledge of Näma Tatva.
Upon which, the Supreme Lord Näräyaëa Jagannäth imparted the philosophy of
Näma or names.
The Emergence of Aum
Acyuta was told not to run after that which is gross (sthula) in the form of the païca
bhüta (the five elements) and instead focus the mind on the subtle (sukñma) in the
form of the païca tanmäträs. These five tatvas and bhütas are the primary
manifestation of the gross material world. This physical world was created by ichä
or desire, which was expressed in the bindu (dot), which is the principle creator. The
desire to create lies latent in the bindu and as it develops, moha2 is generated,
particularly for the created object. The energy that is required to liberate the latent
creative potency dormant in the bindu and manifest itself into the created world is
çakti, the divine feminine principle. Motivated by this desire or ichä, the bindu fell
through the sky as a smoky ashy hue (dhumra varëa), and the guëas were activated.
Astrologically, this can be translated as a Jupiter-Ketu combination, Ketu
representing smoke and Jupiter the all binding ether element or äkäça tatva and
together it created life or creation itself.
As ichä mobilized the guëas and changed them, the bindu changed colour from ash
to blue and then to red. These three colours are the three çaktis, Bhü, Çré and Néla

and the three guëas satva, rajas and tämas. These three çaktis came together and ichä
or desire was manifested as Aum.
Name Vedas

In reality the çaktis are undifferentiated from the Aum. The bindu’s manifestation as
the Aum is the first manifestation of the material world and this is Brahma.
“Meditate upon this Aum”, Acyuta writes, “as this is Niräkära Brahmä.” From Aum
the 14 types of knowledge emerged and from this knowledge the caturdaça
bhuvanas (14 realms/worlds) were created, of which seven are lokas, the heavenly
realms while the other seven are the talas or the underworlds. The seven lokas are
ruled by Jupiter and the seven talas by Venus, the two gurus of the zodiac.
In this manner, from the great void of nothingness Aum emerged and eventually it
merges back into the nothing and this flow of emergence and dissolution is the path
of mokña. Aum is the first name of God and the first stage of manifestation. The
only truth that manifests is this name of God and that is Aum. All siddhas and yogis
meditate upon this Aum, which is the only truth. It is only Aum which is replete
with satva guëa and binds the universe. The name is the only truth as nothing else
will remain and nothing else is real. The strength of the name enabled the sädhus to
comprehend the mysteries of the entire creation and to reach vaikunöha or Viñëu
loka. From this one name Aum, the other names of God emerged and the first to
appear were Brahmä, Viñëu and Maheçvara.
The Emergence of Svaras or the Alphabet
The first manifestation of creation was in the subtle plane, at the level of the
tanmäträs, and this was çabda or sound as Aum, which is ruled by Jupiter.

Aum is the Paramätmä or the Supreme Being as Çabda or Näda Brahmaë and from
Aum, the other sounds or svaras materialized. The first svaras to appear were the 16

These 16 vowels were formed as a 16 petalled lotus in the äúyä or throat cakra by
Çiva, in the centre of which rests the Amåta Kalaça or the Pot of Immortal Nectar.
Çiva as Måtyunjaya, (He who has conquered death) manifests Himself as
Amåteçvaré, or the Goddess of Immortality and at sunrise each day, a drop of nectar
falls from the Pot to the base of the mouth, rejuvenating the jivätmä. It is as if one
dies each night when one goes to sleep and is reborn next morning by the nectar that
drips down the throat at dawn from the Amåta Kalaça. Lord Måtyunjaya gives new
life each morning after the daily death of nightly sleep. Each day thus is like a fresh
cycle of creation and destruction, with the creative process commencing with the
materialization of sound.
Sound at the microcosmic level of the jivätmä appears as svara in the äúyä cakra in
the form of the 16 vowels which are divided in two groups of eight vowels each, of
which the first group of vowels is short and the second group of vowels is long.
Short: a, i, u, å, ÿ, e, o, am
Long: ä, é, ü, è, ý, ai, au, aù
There are five primary vowels based on the païca tatvas or the five primordial
elements, which are known as the païca svaras. The specific elemental nature of
each vowel, assigns a particular characteristic to these svaras, namely form, name,
intelligence, conscience and shelter. These svaras are essential, containing the païca
präëas (five types of vital air), and representing the païca ätmäs (five types of ätmä).
The first vowel ‘a’ is known as the Brahmäkñara, as it initiates manifestation of the
physical world and is therefore associated with form, breath and knowledge, the
very buildings blocks of the living being.

The second vowel, ‘i’ is associated with jala tatva which represents desire. The type
of präëa associated with it is Apäna väyu; that vital air which undigested and moves
downwards and is expelled through the excretory organ. It is related to Näma or
name, for as desire drives one towards ignorance, the sense of the self grows
stronger and the ego emerges. With that, the need for a name or a specific
identification for the jivätmä arises. Hence the béja for this svara is klém or Käma
béja. The klém béja is generally used for worshipping Kåñëa. Käma means desire and
one of the reasons klém is used for worshipping Kåñëa is because Kåñëa is the
ultimate desire of a person, the highest yearning that one harbors during a life time.
Desire for material and physical satiation is tämasik desire. The only true desire is to
yearn for Kåñëa and this is expressed through the Käma béja, klém.
The 16 svaras provide the basis for béjäkñaras or seed syllables which are prefixed
before the mantra. They reside in the äúyä cakra in the form of a 16 petalled lotus.
By meditating on each petal one is blessed with the powers of speech. Each vowel is
like a béja or seed which when attached to a consonant, produces an akñara or
syllable. The consonant is the body; so when a seed attaches itself to a body, an
akñara comes into existence. For example, consonants ‘r’ and ‘l’ when attached to the
vowel ‘a’ produces the béjas ra and la. Ra or ram béja is ruled by agni tatva and
portrays repulsion. La or lam béja is ruled by jala tatva and signifies attraction. Ram
as agni moves the energy of the worshipper upwards, towards God. It is the fire that
burns sin and this çakti or energy that must evolve within is best described by Kali,

as she is the only one who can devour the sins burning within the deepest recesses of
one’s being. Hence she is worshipped with the krém béja, ra or agni added to the
consonant ‘k’ and the vowel ‘i’. La or lam as jala tatva brings God down to the
worshipper and is responsible for blossoming divine love or bhakti within the heart,
and hence Kåñëa, the Eternal Lover, is worshipped with the klém béja. Here la is
added to the same consonant ‘k’, and this enables the devotee to move towards the
path of divine love or bhakti märga.
Similarly there are multifarious béjas, both singular and compound3, which are used
in Mantra Çästra4 especially in the Tantra paramparäs5. Table 5 shows some of the
common uses of the vowels when converted to béjas.
Table 5

Nämäkñara: The Seed of the Name
Similarly, names as used in the physical world have béjäkñaras. The first letter of a
name is the haàsaù or the soul and this is not accidental. The syllable with which
the name starts is the consonant, which forms the béjäkñara in conjunction with the
vowel ‘a’ or ‘am’, and this is known as the nämäkñara. The nämäkñara is the béja.
From the Nämäkñara or béja the name comes into existence for it is the béja which
creates the name and not vice versa. The nämäkñara cannot come into being by itself
only with the consonant as that would constitute merely a body. It requires the
presence of the ätmä or soul, which is known as the haàsaù, to create a béjäkñara.
Here, the vowel is the haàsaù or the soul. When the soul or the haàsaù enters the
body, a life or jivätmä is born. Examples:

S is the consonant, which is the body.
Haàsaù is the soul, represented by the vowel.
S + Haàsaù = Saà (This is translated as “s iti haàsaù” in Sanskrit).
Body + Soul = Seed (This seed is the nämäkñara).
Nämäkñara = Saà
V iti haàsaù
Nämäkñara = Vaà
R iti haàsaù
Nämäkñara = Raà
L iti haàsaù
Nämäkñara = Laà
T iti haàsaù
Nämäkñara = Taà
J iti haàsaù
Nämäkñara = Jaà
Nämäkñara in the Räsé Chart
A name made of a single letter is a béja, as discussed above, but names are also
composed of 2, 3 or 4 letters. Those having more than 4 letters or akñaras are to be
reduced to 2, 3 or 4 akñaras by removing multiples of 3. If a name consists of 5
letters, then remove 3, and the number that is obtained is 2. Names framed with 2, 3
and 4 letters represent the cara, dvisvabhäva and sthira räçés and characteristics of
these räçé will imprint itself on the native.
The nämäkñara belongs to a particular nakñatra, the formula for which is given

Determine the räsé from the näma nakñatra and then examine this räsé in the natal
chart. If the näma räsé is corresponds to the lagna or lagna kendra, then the amount
of satya or truth in the person and his life would be high. If it does not correspond to
the lagna, then see whether it associates with the Moon and its kendras. If the näma
räsé does not correspond with either lagna or the Candra Lagna then the suffering in
the life of the person will be high, as the degree of satya would be minimal. Satya or
truth is strong in the lagna and candra kendras, stable in the paëapharas and is in a
declining mode in the apoklimas. The following is an example of three brothers all of
whom have their näma räsé in Aquarius, but have grown to lead completely
different and separate lives.

This is the chart of the eldest brother, named Sukant. The first letter is ‘Su’, which
corresponds with Çatabhiçäj nakñatra and falls in Aquarius, which becomes his näma
räsé. It is placed in Candra kendra in the 12th house aspected by its lord, Rähu and
conjunct the 7th and 9th lords, Mercury and Mars. The näma räsé also happens to be
his Päka Lagna, with the presence of Lagna Lord Jupiter, making the association
with both lagna and candra lagna very strong. At a very young age, soon after
finishing his primary education, he left India for the United States, where he settled
and attained wealth and prosperity. The 3rd (short distance), 7th (travel in general)
9th (long distance) and 12th (settlement in a foreign country) signify travel. The
näma räçé is the 12th house associated with these travel house lords. The 7th lord
from the näma räçé is Sun placed in the lagna, where there is a strong Mälavya
Mähapuruña Yoga. Once he settled abroad, he married a foreigner (UL lord Jupiter is
in the näma räsé), attained wealth, and the Mähapuruña Yoga was instigated.
Observe the strong influence of Rähu, as näma räçé lord and aspecting the räçé as
Rähu signifies strong foreign influence.

The second or middle brother is named Sanjay, the first letter of which is ‘Sa’, placed
in Aquarius. The Moon is placed in the näma räçé, assuring fame. The 7th lord from
the näma räçé Sun is conjunct the 8th lord and aspecting the näma räçé, showing that
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the fame is for occult studies (8th lord), specifically jyotiña (Sun). The aspect of Rähu
conjoining Çatru pada (A6) indicates trouble from rivals and enemies, and once
again the placement of näma räçé in the 12th house shows that the fame assured by
the Moon will be achieved in foreign countries.
Chart 3
The youngest brother is named Sumant, the first letter being ‘Su’ and the näma räçé
is in Aquarius. It is the 8th house and is in candra kendra, showing the attempt to
adhere to the path of satya. The placement of Sun and Saturn in the sign of Rähu, in
the näma räçé, however explains the tragedy of this brother. Unable to break the
umbilical cord, he still lives with his father living out a stereotypical Sun-Saturn
relationship with him, which has prevented him from moving on in life and from
making a mark for himself. It has seriously affected his professional and marital lives
shown by the UL, A10 on the näma räçé axis.
The Kaöapayädi Method of Näma Räsé
A second method of deriving a näma räçé is through the Kaöapayädi method. The
Kaöapayädi system is a part of traditional techniques along with various other cakras
for determining suitability of names and mantras. The method for calculating the
näma räçé from the Kaöapayädi varga is given below.
Calculating the Kaöapayädi Varga6
Each of the Sanskrit vowels have a zero value (Table-1) and,
Each of the consonants Ka, Ta, Pa & Ya have a numerical value of one, hence the
name Kaöapayädi Varga.
The consonants following these have a sequentially higher numerical value

Step 1: Write the word of the stanza in Devanägaré script and remove the “mäträ’s”
and incomplete/half letters.
Step 2: The numerical value of the remaining letters should be written sequentially.
Step 3: The number so obtained should be reversed.
Step 4: Divide this reversed number by 12.
Step 5: The remainder gives the sign/house referred to in the stanza.
The Kaöapayädi Näma Räçé
The numerical value arrived at through the Kaöapayädi varga is the näma räçé. For
example if the numerical value arrived at is 3, then see the 3rd bhäva from the
natural zodiac or the Kälapuruña. The 3rd house, which is the sign Gemini, shows
writing, communications, prowess etc. and these are the factors that one will give to
the world. Then check Gemini in the räçé chart and this will show what the native
(jätaka) will receive from the world.


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